An overview on few of the platforms and technologies that have opened new ways to collective action and collaborative problem-solving.
The term is generally used to describe data centers available over the Internet to many users. Cloud computing is the on-demand availability of computer system resources, especially data storage and computing power, without direct active management by the user.
Enables users to access cloud computing services using a web browser regardless of their location from anywhere or what device they use (e.g., PC, mobile phone).
Multitenancy enables a large pool of users sharing the resources thus allows Centralization of infrastructure in locations with lower costs (such as real estate, electricity, etc.).
Productivity may be increased when multiple users can work on the same data simultaneously, rather than waiting for it to be saved and emailed. Time may be saved as information does not need to be re-entered when fields are matched, nor do users need to install application software upgrades to their computer.
Reliability improves with the use of multiple redundant cloud computing sites, which makes the cloud computing well-designed, suitable for business continuity and disaster recovery.
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The Internet of things (IoT)
is the extension of Internet connectivity into physical devices that are embedded with electronics, Internet connectivity, and other forms of sensors, these devices can communicate and interact with others over the Internet, and they can be remotely monitored and controlled.
The definition of the Internet of things has evolved due to the convergence of multiple technologies, real-time analytics, machine learning, commodity sensors, and embedded systems. Traditional fields of embedded systems, wireless sensor networks, control systems, automation (including home and building automation), and others all contribute to enabling the Internet of things.
Applications of IoT devices:
A smart home or automated home could be based on a platform or hubs that control smart devices and appliances like, using Apple's Home Kit, manufacturers can have their home products and accessories controlled by an application in iOS devices such as the iPhone and the Apple Watch.
There are also dedicated smart home hubs that are offered as standalone platforms to connect different smart home products like, the Amazon Echo, Google Home, Apple's Home Pod, and Samsung's Smart Things.
Medical and Healthcare
IoT devices can be used to enable remote health monitoring and emergency notification systems. These health monitoring devices can range from blood pressure and heart rate monitors to advanced devices capable of monitoring specialized implants, such as pacemakers, Fitbit electronic wristbands, or advanced hearing aids.
Some hospitals have begun implementing "smart beds" that can detect when they are occupied and when a patient is attempting to get up. It can also adjust itself to ensure appropriate pressure and support is applied to the patient without the manual interaction of nurses.
The IoT can assist in the integration of communications, control, and information processing across various transportation systems covering most of the aspects of transportation systems (i.e. the vehicle, the infrastructure, driver, and user).
In Logistics and Fleet Management for example, an IoT platform can continuously monitor the location and conditions of cargo and assets via wireless sensors and send specific alerts when management exceptions occur (delays, damages, thefts, etc.).
Sensors such as GPS, Humidity, and Temperature sends data to the IoT platform and then the data is analyzed and then sent to the users. This way, users can track the real-time status of vehicles and can make appropriate decisions.
Building and Home Automation
IoT devices can be used to monitor and control the mechanical, electrical and electronic systems used in various types of buildings (e.g., public and private, industrial, institutions, or residential).
Industrial applications (IIoT)
The IIoT refers to interconnected sensors, instruments, and other devices networked together with computers' industrial applications, including, but not limited to, manufacturing and energy management. This connectivity allows for data collection, exchange, and analysis, potentially facilitating improvements in productivity and efficiency as well as other economic benefits.
The IoT can realize the seamless integration of various manufacturing devices equipped with sensing, identification, processing, communication, actuation, and networking capabilities. The IoT intelligent systems enable rapid manufacturing of new products, dynamic response to product demands, and real-time optimization of manufacturing production and supply chain networks, by networking machinery, sensors and control systems together.
A few IoT applications in farming are collecting data on temperature, rainfall, humidity, wind speed, pest infestation, and soil content. This data can be used to automate farming techniques, make informed decisions to improve quality and quantity, minimize risk and waste, and reduce the effort required to manage crops. For example, farmers can now monitor soil temperature and moisture from afar and even apply IoT-acquired data to precision fertilization programs.
Monitoring and controlling operations of sustainable urban and rural infrastructures like bridges, railway tracks and on- and offshore wind-farms is a key application of the IoT. The IoT can benefit the construction industry by cost saving, time reduction, better quality workday, paperless workflow and increase in productivity.