WATER MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (WMS):
Monitoring and controlling of the electrical sub systems and controlling of pumps of Huge Water Sumps at ‘Main Pump house (MPH)’. The command control and monitoring happens from ‘Main Control Room (MCR)’ which is 8km away from the Main Pump House.
Electrical sub system: All of the electrical parameters like VLL(RYB), VLN(RYB), Freq.Hz, Amps(RYB), Power factor, Watts(RYB) and VA(RYB), etc. of the loads are measured & acquired through the ‘Multi-Function Meter’ at HT site and at LT motor section, and few more meters to measure output voltages of the 110 V DC system which comprises of the ‘battery bank, charger1 and charger2’, etc.
The ‘Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition’ (SCADA) system comprises of ‘Human Machine interface (HMI)’ software and hardware (viz… ‘Controller’, Gateways, MFMs, Smart IOs, etc.). SCADA systems are used by industrial organizations and companies in the public and private sectors to control and maintain efficiency, distribute data for smarter decisions, and communicate system issues to help mitigate downtime. SCADA systems work well in many different types of enterprises because they can range from simple configurations to large, complex installations. SCADA systems are the backbone of many modern industries, including: Energy, Oil and Gas, Transportation, Manufacturing, Food and Beverage, Water and Waste Recycling, etc.
All the monitoring locations will communicate with SCADA at Main Pump House site and Main Control Room. The sampling time of SCADA system is 1ms.
HMI Software helps to do system customizations more efficiently as to monitor and control valves, pumps, motors, sensors and more. SCADA system generates alerts, alarms and triggers load disconnects and reconnects according to the customized logics based on the customer specification requirements.
Controller and all of these MFMs, DC-meters communicates to Gateway over Modbus RTU protocol from different locations using wired RS485 interface and through the GPRS gateway to the SCADA system.
Controller analog inputs are the process parameters like flow, pressure, sump level, etc. Controller digital inputs are the status parameters of the pump like run, trip and dry run, etc. Controller processing unit reads analog and digital input data from connected field equipment through its input modules. Controller outputs are updated to the output devices (Gateway, Digital Output devices, Analog Output devices that drives or controls Relays/Actuators/Motors) based on the Control program uploaded into the Controller memory and stimuli from analog and digital inputs.
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BUILDING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (BMS)
BMS otherwise known as a building automation system (BAS), is a computer-based control system installed in buildings as to monitor and control the building’s mechanical and electrical equipment such as ventilation, lighting, power systems, fire systems, water, gas and security systems.
A list of systems that can be monitored or controlled by a BMS are shown below:
- Lighting control
- Electric power control
- Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning
- Security and observation
- Access control
- Fire alarm system
- Lifts, elevators,
- Water and Cooking Gas control
- Closed-circuit television (CCTV)
- Other engineering systems
- Control Panel
- PA system
- Alarm Monitor
- Possibility of individual room monitoring & control
- Increased staff productivity
- Effective reduction in wastage of Electrical energy, Water and Gas.
- Reduced consumption of Electrical energy, water and gas.
- Improved reliability and life of devices/systems under control.
- Remote monitoring of the plants (such as AHU’s, fire pumps, plumbing pumps, electrical supply, STP, WTP, grey watertreatment plant,)
- Systematic and Ease of maintenance
The above picture is a typical BMS example: A gated community where 80 apartments per building and such 26 buildings like… building ‘A’ to building ‘Z’ are connected with various sensors viz…
- Temp sensors (Room A/C, Geezers : Thermistors based devices),
- level sensors (water level indicators: Simple Digital input devices),
- Pulse sensors (water, gas consumption indicators: Digital input devices),
- Relay modules (to drive the pumps ON/OFF : digital output devices with relays)
- Single phase & three phase Energy meters (prepaid/postpaid devices)
Each of these devices mentioned above are designed & centered around a micro controller with RS485 com port and sufficient enough of memory and other Analog and digital IO ports.
Refer the picture above and assume 20 of such devices for the purposes mentioned above are interfaced to a Gateway (GW) whose south side interface is RS485 and north side interface is Ethernet. From each Block a total of 80 RS485 devices are connected to Ethernet Switch (8 port Ethernet switch: 4 of 8 ports are spared for IO expansion) through the 4 GWs.
BMS room primarily comprises of the interface panel2 and the central server and central display systems. The BMS room is located in one of the 26 buildings and the buildings are about 500 meters apart from each other. Thus necessitated the conversion of electrical signal to optical signal using Ethernet to optical converter then passing it through the line interface unit (LIU) and transport the same through Fiber Optic Cable (FOC) to the panel2. And as the signal reaches BMS room through LIU and optical to Ethernet converter, the optical signal is converted back to electrical and passed on to switch and such multiple inputs are multiplexed by switch and the multiplexed output fed to the central server.
Now the rest the work goes on Elnet Software. Based on (1) configuration of the devices at various locations of 26 buildings and (2) as per the BMS enterprising requirements (billing, alarms, alerts, report generation) the Elnet SW decodes the raw data, validates and does the necessary computations then finally transforms the information into an intelligible format and generates reports and saves the desired info periodically in to the server. Based on the utility requirements displays the diagnostic info of the BMS Network along with vital commercial parameters and alarms / threats if any. And in response to the BMS network system alarms if any, alerts are posted immediately to the Network Maintenance staff and chief controller of BMS Room by text/email.
… to be contd
Learn the negative impacts of Smart Cities that are explained in the next episode…