The main essence of the Smart City concept can be understood well by these four frameworks:
Smart Cities are classified based on the following frameworks:
- Technology Framework
- Human Framework
- Energy framework &
- Data Management framework.
The concepts of the Smart city rely heavily on the different combinations of the use of technological infrastructure. For example:
- Digital city:
The Technology Framework ‘TFW’ combines service-oriented infrastructure and communication infrastructure to meet the needs of governments and their employees, citizens, and businesses.
- Information city:
An information city could be an urban Centre both economically and socially speaking; The TFW collects local information and delivers them to the public portal; many inhabitants are able to live and even work on the Internet because they could obtain every information through IT infrastructures.
- Intelligent city:
The notion emerges in a social context in which knowledge, learning process, and creativity have great importance and the human capital is considered the most precious resource within this type of technological city.
Human infrastructure (i.e., creative occupations and workforce, knowledge networks, voluntary organizations) is a crucial axis for city development
- Creative city:
Creativity is recognized as a key driver to a smart city. Social infrastructures, like for instance intellectual and social capital are indispensable factors to build a city that is smart according to the human framework. These infrastructures concern people and their relationship.
- Learning city:
Learning city is involved in building a skilled workforce. This type of city in the human context improves the competitiveness in the global knowledge economy: individually proactive city, city cluster, the one-to-one link between cities, and city network. That lead a city to learn how it should be possible and realistic to be smart through learning process followed by city workforce.
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Smart cities use data and technology to create efficiencies, improve sustainability, create economic development, and enhance the quality of life factors for people living and working in the city. It also means that the city has a smarter energy infrastructure.
A smart city is powered by "smart connections" for various items such as street lighting, smart buildings, distributed energy resources (DER), data analytics, and smart transportation. Amongst these things, energy is paramount; this is why utility companies play a key role in smart cities. Electric companies, working partnership with city officials, technology companies and a number of other institutions, are among the major players that helped accelerate the growth of America's smart cities.
Data Management Framework
Smart city employs a combination of data collection, processing, and disseminating technologies in conjunction with networking and computing technologies and data security and privacy measures encouraging application innovation to promote the overall quality of life for its citizens and covering dimensions that include: utilities, health, transportation, entertainment and government services.