Episode-5-Smart Cities Web Series-few-applications
LIGHTING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (LMS):

Street light management system comprises of controller, Lux sensors, Gateways, Smart-IOs, etc. & the El-Net Software for Monitoring, controlling the LMS from the ‘Main Control Room (MCR)’. And the communication between the controller subsystem and the MCR happens through Wi-Fi.

Smart cities episode 5 - Light Management System

Functional Description:

Group(s) of street lamps are made ON/OFF based on one of the options (1) LUX sensor data input, in this option the lights are switched ON as the sunsets and they are  switched OFF on the sunrise. (2) Remote switching from the MCR: This option helps putting OFF/ON certain (play grounds, shopping complexes, etc.) light circuits according to the need. (3) Manual (Default) switching: this option could be used whenever they need to override the options 1 and 2. for various reasons. Also, Options 1 and 2 comes with a preprogrammed timed light intensities. And the light intensity could be set from 0% to 100% across the timed slots of the day and the schedule could be changed/reprogrammed as per the utilities need.

For example:

  1. 0%    light intensity from 06:00 Hrs. to 18:00 Hrs.
  2. 50%   light intensity from 18:00 Hrs. to 20:00 Hrs.
  3. 100% light intensity from 20:00 Hrs. to 22:00 Hrs.
  4. 50%    light intensity from 22:00 Hrs. to 6:00 Hrs.

‘El-Net Software’: The Software installed in the server will help integrating Lights to LMS circuits and configuring, Monitoring and Controlling the LMS circuits and customized report generation. The entire Lighting area is divided in to Zones, Zone wise user interface screen(s) helps View the energy consumption data and history of –communication failure, ON/OFF Status of lights with the time stamp on Daily/ Monthly basis and gives the flexibility to change the On/Off schedules.

Any status change in the lighting circuits will be published within 5 sec. on the central Display system provided at MCR and in case of alarms the respective operators would get text alerts and emails as configured.

Field Devices:

  1. Controller and IO Cards and with RS 485
  2. Field IO – DO Modules
  3. Field IO – AI Modules
  4. Sensors with 4-20mA Output

Network Interfaces:

  1. RS 232 Gateway with communication Ports RS 232 / RS 485 / USB
  2. Ethernet gateway with (south) RS 485 port and (north)  Ethernet Port
  3. Wi-Fi network to communicate the data to LMS System

Infrastructure at MCR:

  1. Standard Server for the El-Net SW to handle User Interface and Back endData management application.
  2. Central Display System to present (customized) screens like…
Date Time Zone Floor Location Auto/Manual Sensor Ref# Lux-Actual Lux-Set Value Light ON/OFF Status

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SMART METERING SYSTEM

The main objective ofAdvanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI):

  1. To establish two-way communications between smart energy meter(end point) and Head End System (HES)
  2. To enable remote reading, monitoring & control of and electrical network through the energy meters.
  3. To serve as repository of record for all raw, validated andedited data.

AMI Architecture:

Smart cities episode 5 - Smart Metering

“Smart Metering System” functionalities:

    1. Remote Meter data reading at configurable intervals (push/pull)
    2. Time of day (TOD)/TOU metering
    3. Pre-paid/Post-paid functionality
    4. Net Metering/Billing
    5. Alarm/Event detection, notification and reporting
    6. Remote Load Limiter and connection/ disconnection at pre-defined conditions and or on demand conditions.
    7. Remote firmware upgrade
    8. Security features to prevent unauthorized access to the AMI including Smart meter & meter data, etc.
    9. Field replaceable Modular Communication Module (shall be bundled in meter housing)
    10. Pairing with Communication Module
    11. Geolocation Identification
    12. Time Synchronisation

Components of “Smart Metering System” functionalities:

    1. Network Management System (NMS):The NMS is responsible for the establishment and management of all radio mesh networks,
      1. The discovery of all nodes once deployed in the field,
      2. The overall system management,
      3. As well as security management of those millions of devices.
    2. Meter Data Acquisition System (MDAS)/Head End System (HES):The main objective of HES/MDAS is to acquire data from different end points and monitor them automatically from remote.
    3. Meter Data Management System (MDM):A software application that stores, validates, edits and analyses meter reading data prior to releasing it for integration into other operational systems of utility such as customer billing, load forecasting and outage management
    4. Smart Meters:
      1. Smart meters are advanced Electronic energy measurement devices with built-in communication module capable of two-way communications.
      2. Also, has the ability to measure the incoming and outgoing (Import and Export energy) flow of electricity (two-way energy measurement) from a specific location such as a customer‘s home or business.
      3. And has the capacity to collect information about energy usage at various intervalsand transmitting the data through a communication network to utility and receiving instructions from utility as well.
      4. In addition to conventional electronic metering functionality smart meters can undertake load switch activities for disconnecting/ connecting the load.

A few features of Smart Meter:

  1. The instantaneous parameters: The instantaneous parameters shall be continuously updated by the meter to the host computer. The energy values in the table shall be cumulative from the day of manufacturing or from the installation of the meter as the case may be. These shall be continuously updated and the last updated value shall be available for downloading as and when required.
  2. Time of Day or Time of use: First of all a passive calendar is set and that speaks about  the beginning of the time slot and its end time  similarly such time slots  to a max. of 16 slots on any given day are set. Then the passive activity calendar is set and that speaks about date and time stamp at which the passive calendar becomes active. The above process is meant for capturing consumption of energy parameters at different time slots of any given day and this would facilitate computing of energy consumption at different tariffs (slabs for peak hour loads) at different time slots across the day of activity calendar.
  3. Tamper detection features: Meter detects Tampers and Frauds such as Voltage missing, Voltage unbalance, Current unbalance, Current Reversal, Neutral Disturbance, Low PF, Magnet detection, Power on/off, etc. along with date and time of occurrence.
    1. Voltage Missing: Meter detects and records occurrences of Voltage missing and restoration of voltage. If a voltage missing is detected, it is known as voltage missing tamper.
    2. Voltage / Current Unbalance:  Meter detects and records occurrences of Voltage and Current unbalance. A phase voltage difference of 30% and a phase current difference of 30% are known as Voltage unbalance tamper and current unbalance tamper respectively.
    3. Current Polarity Reversal: Meter detects and records occurrences of CT polarity reversal. If a Current polarity reversal is detected, it is known as Current polarity reversal tamper.
    4. Neutral Disturbance: Meter detects and records occurrences of Neutral disturbance, if the voltage is more than 300 V, it is known as Neutral Disturbance tamper.
    5. Low power factor: Meter detects and records occurrences of low power factor, if the power factor is less than 0.2, it is known as Low power factor tamper.
    6. High Current: Meter detects and records occurrences of High current. If the Current is more than 65A, it is known as High Current tamper.
    7. Power on/off: Meter detects and records occurrences of Power off, if the voltage is less than a particular threshold of voltage, it is known as Power off tamper.
    8. Magnetic influence:  Meter detects and records occurrences of the presence of abnormal Magnetic influence near the meter that influences the functionality of the meter.
    9. Front cover opening Disturbance: Meter detects and records occurrences of Front cover opening, if any one tries to tamper the meter by opening the front cover of the meter it detects and logs the event in to its memory with time stamp.
    10. High/ Low Voltage: The meter detects voltage crossing above and below the set threshold voltage, for a persistence time then it logs the event with time stamp.

      The front cover open tamper information will be logged in a stay put type compartment and all other tamper information are logged on divided roll over compartment and first in and first out basis. Meters have provision to record the energy in forward direction in case of CT reversal.

  4. Demand side Management: Smart Meters provide load control outputs for Demand side programs and load shedding on Demand. Demand Control Register is programmed for Maximum demand that is allowed for consumption during the Demand Integration period (Normally 30 minutes / 15 Minutes). For Example:  if Demand Control register is programmed for 6 KW then load gets disconnected for either (1) the instant power exceeds 6 KW for more than 2 minutes (Demand Persistence time) continuously, or (2) If the raising demand reaches 6KW.

    Reconnection happens (demand reconnect time) when the raising demand is less than Demand Control Register value (in this example 6KW.)

    Assuming the Demand Integration Period (DIP) is 30 minutes and the raising demand reaches 6 KW in 20 minutes then the load gets disconnected  and remains in disconnected mode for the next 30 seconds (Demand Reconnect Time: DRT). After the DRT the load gets connected automatically.

  5. Security: When the meter is Security locked, only meter readings and Load survey data are accessible. No access of data that leads to change the functionality/configuration of the meter are allowed. The security system virtually eliminates the fraud / tampering attempts of the meter.
  6. Parameters for accounting and billing: The set of parameters identified for accounting and billing shall be generated by meter for each billing cycle and stored in the meter.  The set of data for last 6 billing cycles are stored in the meter memory. At the end of each cycle corresponding set of data shall be readable by host from remote.

Smart parameter list (measured & calculated) based on IS16444, IS13779, IS15959, & IS15884:

  1. Voltage parameter per phase:
  2. Current parameter per phase:
  3. Power Factor per phase:
  4. Frequency:
  5. Signed Active Power(+forward ; -reverse):
  6. Signed Reactive Power(+Lag;-Lead):
  7. Apparent power:
  8. Active Energy :
  9. Reactive Energy:
  10. Apparent Energy:
  11. Block active energy kWh(forward/import):
  12. Block apparent energy kVAh(forward/import):
  13. Block apparent energy, kVAh lag:
  14. Block apparent energy, kVAh lead:
  15. Block active energy, kWh export(reverse energy):
  16. Block apparent energy, kVAh export(reverse energy):
  17. Import active energy (Forward energy kWh):
  18. Import apparent energy(forward kVAh):
  19. Export energy (reverse energy: active kWh):
  20. Export energy (reverse energy: apparent kVAh):
  21. Maximum demand in kW(active maximum power):
  22. Maximum demand in kVA(apparent MD):
  23. TOD Maximum demand in kW (configurable time zones, maximum will be eight time zones):
  24. TOD Maximum demand in kVA (configurable time zones, maximum will be eight time zones):
  25. Cumulative billing count:
  26. Cumulative tamper count:
  27. Cumulative programming count:
  28. Average Power factor:
  29. Average Voltage:
  30. Average Current:
  31. Number of power failure events:
  32. Billing power on duration in min:
  33. Cumulative power off duration in min:
  34. Cumulative apparent energy, kVArh lag:
  35. Cumulative apparent energy, kVArh lead:

… to be contd

Learn more about applications by Smart Cities that are continued in the next episode...