• Let's Learn Energy


Sanitize. Breathe Clean. Be Healthy!

The year 2020 proved difficult for each and every one of us with the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, and it surely has impacted all our lives. Our health has never been threatened and put to so much risk, that all sectors were shut down except medical and essentials. We know that this virus is not going to disappear for a long time. The question was what could Elmeasure do to address this issue. We as a company, wanted to explore a long term solution that would benefit society as a whole.

The deeds of the renowned carmakers such as Maruti Suzuki, Ford and General Motors of tying-up with the local companies in mass production of ventilators to help the country, was nothing short of an inspiration! We wanted to be a helping hand too.

The research and discussions clearly proved to us that our ISO-certified manufacturing practices and dealer network were our key strengths. However, we were short-handed with two things – technology to kill germs, and the relative inexperience in the field of consumer products.

From the time of Elmeasure’s inception, ‘Building People’ has always been the philosophy that we abided by, and is the one which we pride in! Health, safety and stability of our people, especially of their infants and elderly is our top priority. The pandemic surely challenged all of these. ‘Innovation’ was the only answer to these challenges. We love solving problems and it has been one of our core driving values since 2004. We are constantly looking out for those challenging problems and test ourselves to come up with applicable solutions.

By making use of Rockforest’s superior UV technology along with our manufacturing practices, we came up with EL-CLEAiR. It is an aesthetically well designed table with a UV drawer where your phones, keys, wallet and other day-to-day articles can be sanitized within 10 minutes.
With a filtration efficiency of 99.97% at 0.3 microns, the additional HEPA air filter provides the ultimate protection in trapping allergens, dust and other particulates surrounding you and provides the cleanest air.

Many companies are taking advantage of people’s anxiety and panic to promote their preventive health products, but without any scientific back-up. This gave us the insight to get   EL-CLEAiR thoroughly tested for it’s effectiveness at an accredited laboratory before introducing it to the public and have scientific test reports backing it up.

All of us have ideas and some of them might really work. Nothing brings us a sense of satisfaction and joy like going that extra mile on a challenging path, and coming up with a practical solution to a global problem.

It’s one thing to state one’s ideas and values, but to prove them by action is something else entirely!

Portable Power Quality Analyzer - Elmeasure

Why Power Quality Analyzers is a Mandate for most industries?

iD-LOG 8000 – An intelligent & portable power quality device to save energy and improvise the profits.

Poor power quality leads to an increase in the energy bills by rising power usage and damaging expensive equipment. Also, diagnosing and servicing of faulty equipment were found to be a time-consuming process, which in turn affects productivity.

The iD-LOG 8000 Power Quality Analyzer will help you to easily and quickly identify the failure or unscheduled outages, and magnitude of power quality issues.

Elmeasure Power Quality Analyzer
All Features & expertise of our iD-LOG 8000, Know More.
  • Allows versatile measurements and analysis of Power quality events such as Swell, Dip, Interruption, transients, and harmonics.
  • High capacity rechargeable batteries with more than 24 hours of battery life and extended measurement can be done without using the main power supply.
  • Measures medium and low voltage power system integrated for 2/3/4 wire connection system (balanced and unbalanced ) supporting AC or DC utilities.
  •  Quick start mode and automatic connection probes are provided to check the wiring connections before the actual measurement is performed.
  • Power, Waveform and Vector displays for an enhanced display of the monitored output power quality.
  • Quickly records and process data by the integration of user-friendly, USB cable to the PC using appropriate software as an accessory with memory up to 4GB in SD Card. 
  • Measures Active reactive and apparent power to check the energy consumption using trend and graphs for easy view.
  • Conformance testing to EN 50160.
  •  Comes complete with measurement accessories, PC software, and a suitcase

The applications of the analyzer are directed to a very wide range of users, with particular reference to the energy auditors.

Energy Audits

Power quality analyzers allow the property owners or building operators to receive a detailed report on their energy consumption, device efficiencies, and power quality measurements by Metering energy audits. The data provided by the auditors using power quality analyzers will be used for monitoring losses of power and cost allocation.

Manufacturing Industries

Power quality analyzers allow the facility managers and operators to take suitable measures to ensure expensive equipment used in manufacturing and process-based operations to execute effectively and efficiently.

 Energy Companies

Appropriate power quality management can be devised by using power quality analyzers to improve power variants and energy efficiencies.

Data centers

 Power quality analyzer will be used to eradicate challenges that disrupt the effectiveness of systems or critical devices used in data centers and provide a proactive solution to these issues.


The frequent tripping of devices in telecommunication sectors was mostly associated with voltage sags and swells, was further found to increase loads such as short circuits or faults, or by an abrupt reduction in load on a circuit. Thus, power quality analyzer was found to resolve these issues avoiding costly maintenance of equipment.

Educational Institutions

Power quality analyzers could be used in institutions to monitor and perform in-depth analysis in a controlled setting to rapidly isolate issues, test responses, planning facilities and restructured layouts.


Healthcare sectors use a critical device which is of utmost significance in saving lives, where power quality monitoring device will ensure the smooth running of devices and protection against unforeseen events that deteriorate the performance.

Commercial Facilities

Power quality analyzers can be used in commercial buildings to maintain daily activities and take proactive actions against damage to critical systems.

A simple and easy-to-use handled Power Quality device from ELMEASURE® can be used to perform periodic assessments which stores data, measures energy and ELNET Power Studio software is used to perform detailed analysis to improve their quality and reliability.

Well, if you are looking for one Go ahead & purchase at a discounted price or INQUIRE NOW.
Elmeasure ACCL impresses India

[USE CASE] – Why a residential community in Bangalore is dumping their existing ACCL & opt for Elmeasure iACCL?

There were days until recently where Electricity was still inaccessible to many places in India. But, now the development is to such an extent that, there is no need to go dark any time.

Few products in the Energy space are now able to allow you to connect your EB & DG to give you a seamless power changeover for an uninterrupted power supply.

We call it an iACCL, An “intelligent Automatic Changeover with Current Limiter”

Who needs it?

Well, everyone who wanted to spend the nights/days without any power interruptions, for their family sake, kids sake, business sake, etc. needs it. It’s not the affordability that has the issue but it is the knowledge of which brand to choose that matters & make people spend more on this product.

There are many low cost products as well that might need to be replaced after a year’s use or something, It is the case with one of our recent client who have opted for Elmeasure due to multiple issues from their existing vendor.

The Pain Point

The existing ACCL from the brand X has been burnt as it could not take the load & we are unaware of other technical issues that the product was not able to serve the purpose. We are also not able to monitor the basic things of the ACCL.

The Solution
  • Elmeasure ACCL that has a display to monitor the current source
  • A mobile app to restore the power supply from sleep mode without the intervention of human
  • Product ranges from 40A-125A, for industries with high loads can get a similar but advanced product with extra features called ATeS.
  • Price range from 8500-34,500 with basic discounts at any time.
  • Also easy to handle & install with high user experience rating.
ACCL Residential Complex - order
A Sample Order: Customers moving opt for Elmeasure ACCL
Salient Features
  •  Microcontroller based automatic source changeover with neutral isolation
  •  Intelligent re-connection once the trip has occurred due to either overvoltage or overload
  •  Energy, current, voltage measurement for generator & current measurement for mains
  •  Individual phase overload monitoring in 3 phase ACCL & overvoltage protection for DG
  •  Inbuilt display & measurement of I, V, F and KWh on both generator & mains in iACCL M600
  •  The power supply can be restored from sleep mode through the manual provision or via Mobile APP
  •  ACCL perform intelligent tripping to save the age of the cables
  •  Reduced wiring cost as single phase ACCL has a separate control for power and lighting load
  •  Automate power distribution, protect expensive equipment and prevent fatal risks
  •  ACCL Logic for Currents up to 120 Amps is available
Well, if you are looking for a change & willing to invest in this product, ORDER DIRECTLY (use Coupon: ELNEWBIE) or Inquire.

Automatic Transfer switch (ATS)

Automatic Transfer Switch : the what and the why?

Automatic Transfer Switch :  An ATS is a device that is designed to Automatically transfer between (2 or 3) sources of power to improve the reliability of the electrical supply to the connected load and to provide zero interruption of power. 

 It automatically switches when it senses one of the sources has lost or gained power.

Automatic Transfer Switch Not only transfers the load to the backup generator but also it commands  the backup generator to start and stop, based on the voltage monitored on the primary supply.

ATS installed in Industries, a  Industries is equipped with a backup generator and an ATS.

When an electric utility outage occurs, the ATS will tell the backup generator to start.

Once the ATS sees that the generator is ready to provide electric power, the ATS breaks the  connection from the electric utility and connects the generator to the same main electrical panel.

When a  utility power returns for a minimum time, the ATS will automatically transfer  back to utility power and command the generator to turn off.

Operation Areas of ATS 

1.Utility to Utility. 

2.Generator to  Generator.

3.Utility to Generator.

4.Standby power system to two utility feeds.  Etc.

Utility to Utility

Dual utility applications are becoming more common , in facilities with  zero interruption of power, but no standby generator. If one utility feed fails, the transfer switch automatically connects the load to the second utility feed.

Generator to  Generator

(using multiple on-site generators)If the primary generator fails, the transfer switch sends a start signal to the second generator and then transfers the load.

Utility to Generator

If the supply from  Utility fails/ interrupted ,the transfer switch will send a start signal to the generator automatically and connect the generator supply to load. 

Easiest way to transfer power sources to Back up Power



ATS is a factory assembled device and it  requires minimum knowledge for installation, thereby simplifying the installation and reducing the amount of time required to be operational. 

Safety and protection

The current-carrying parts of the device are all enclosed, providing protection against any direct contact. There are absolutely no exposed wires.In an emergency situation requiring manual operation, the automatic and remote use are disabled by simply operating  the handle.

Space reducing

The device has been designed to be extremely small and compact with  fully enclosed. Compared to traditional devices, the Compact ATS takes very less cabin space. 

No supplementary accessories are needed, not even an extra external power source.


Automatic starting and stopping of Diesel generator on the mains failure.

It is provided with a fire alarm / external fault trip feature.

Automatic transfer switches are designed to  withstand high short circuits.

It provides the safety of load and equipment ,during the changeover of switch, when the fault occurs at primary side.

Types of ATS provided by Elmeasure:

1. Motorised based Automatic Transfer Switch.

2. Solenoid based Automatic Transfer switch.

Decoding the application of ATS : where is it used?

Know More

Motorised based Automatic Transfer Switch:

The motorised ATS  is operated by an electrical  motor for moving the contact. 

Motorised ATS is usually adapted  for adjustment.( ie; Transfering the switch with some delay)

Who needs it?

 The small scale Industries.

 The Water treatment plant. 

 Shopping Malls.

 Huge Apartments.

 Educational Institutes.

 Airports. etc..

Where  the delay (delay of 3 second) of switching  does not affect  normal operation/working  conditions, without loss of data and resources.

Solenoid based Automatic Transfer switch.

The solenoid ATS is operated by the magnet, just one electromagnetic coil is used for moving the contact. The Solenoid ATS is used for Faster and Quick operation when it senses the fault within a fraction of  milliseconds. 

Who needs it?

The places were  interruption of power even for 1 seconds leads to the REAL TIME LOSS / UNRECOVERABLE LOSS,  To prevent that a Solenoid ATS is essential !

The Large scale Industries.

Data centers Data.

Telecommunications and Telecom towers.

Hospital (mainly operation Theaters,ICU’s ,Emergency’s )

Railways and Railway power lines.

Sports Stadiums. 

World Trade Centers. Etc..

Where switching operations take place in range from 0.3 milliseconds to 100 milliseconds (as a fraction of Eye blinking ).

 Well, if you are looking for one Go ahead & purchase at a discounted price or INQUIRE NOW.

PrePaid Energy Meters

LoRa based PrePaid Energy Meters: Shaping the future of Utility Management


Technology can only be utilized and most importantly, revolutionized. When you are in the utility sector, it is the responsibility of each and everybody serving to provide ‘Vikaas’. In common words, Vikaas translates to development and it can be anything. For the time being, let’s consider a power cut. Power cuts annoy everybody. People start blaming the government, the discoms and each and everyone except themselves. But what if the mistake is on your side? What if you haven’t paid your bills ? What if, you pay and use electricity? Something similar to a prepaid sim?

For complete strangers to this technology, “the standard business model of electricity retailing involves the electricity company billing the customer for the amount of energy used in the previous month or quarter. In some countries, if the retailer believes that the customer may not pay the bill, a prepayment meter may be installed. This requires the customer to make an advance payment before electricity can be used” is how Wikipedia describes it. 


Pay As You Go

For those living under the rocks, this concept of prepaid electricity metering isn’t new. Landlords in the UK have used prepaid electricity meters for rented accommodation. The South African company Eskom started using prepayment system under their ‘Electricity For All’ scheme which was highly successful. Even the Indian government has decided to replace all the existing meters with smart prepaid ones. Karnataka, Maharashtra and Delhi have all started replacing the meters and Uttar Pradesh has also followed suit. Now talk about Vikaas !

The discoms are facing a host of problems. Payment dues, power theft are just the tip of the iceberg. The government has settled upon that prepayment electricity could  be the answer. And, they might have actually hit the bulls eye. There might not be a significant decrease in operating cost , but it will be a considerable one. And, not to mention the profit discoms might start making with people actually paying for what they use.  Meters will be able to measure most of the data like voltage, frequency and also display the balance left. By using smart meters, users will be able to monitor parameters by connecting it to the meters. But , how is the connection between the user and device achieved is the next big question that needs to be answered.   

The Liaison

Most of the smart meters use various connectivity methods such as  cellular communication, WiFi, ethernet,Zigbee, but LPWAN is proving to be the one to watch out for. With several advantages such as lower power consumption,longer range, low operating cost, lesser number of gateways required and free radio spectrum, LPWAN can do what bluetooth(longer range) and cellular(low power) could not achieve. 

LPWAN was created for IOT based M2M applications . It transmits data in packets to avoid packet loss, thus increasing efficiency. A wide variety of applications such as metering, location monitoring, home automation, fleet monitoring, traffic management can use this method.

With a handful of vendors offering this technology, Sigfox and LoRa are the pioneers. Sigfox uses a well-known modulation technique, but transmits slowly in a very narrow band of spectrum to maximize signal penetration. LoRa radios use a modulation technique that can find signals well below the noise floor. Having developed their own signal processing methods, LoRa has been able to achieve even longer ranges, significantly better than the standard 10 km range in comparison to other vendors. With its free to use operation and ‘build-your-network’ method of operating, LoRa has taken the lead in the race. Within the sub-GHz spectrum, LoRa chips use a spread-spectrum strategy to transmit at a variety of frequencies and data rates. That allows the gateway to adapt to changing conditions and optimize the way it exchanges data with each device.

Metering Gets Smarter with LoRa

When electricity meters are used with LoRa, metering tends to be smarter. Each meter shall have a seperate QR code and can be scanned by the user and can be quickly installed. A single gateway can connect upto 256 energy meters ( to one gateway with programmable data log interval, meters can be scaled up to 1000) and data is transmitted from the meters to the central server through this gateway. Important data can be sent , so less operating cost and losses occur. Places where source changovers are used, a wireless communication module is used to send the data to the user as well as the server where all the data is stored. Using a mobile app, the meter data can be monitored by the user.

Key Features of LoRa based Elmeasure Prepaid Meter

Long Range 

Connects devices up to 1 Km  apart in rural areas and penetrates  dense urban or deep indoor environments

Low Cost

Reduces infrastructure investment, and ultimately operating expenses


Features end-to-end encryption, mutual authentication, integrity protection, and confidentiality

High Reliability

Designed to operate across a wide temperature range in unforgiving environments, these devices are ideal for Aerospace, Industrial and Military applications.

LoRa enabled prepayment meters can be used in residential complexes where energy supply and source can be controlled and data of each household can be monitored. Since their operation does not rely upon network providers, it can be accessed anytime of the day. In case of commercial establishments, energy can be monitored such that the load is operated in an efficient manner. With increase in power theft, payment dues and meter manipulation, these set of meters stand a great chance in reducing utility losses coupled with its large communication range. The app can also be used  to recharge the account. 

With a smattering of manufacturers coupling LoRa with prepaid energy measurement, companies like Elmeasure India Pvt Ltd. are setting standards in the energy sector. It’s only a matter of time before we hear their success stories !

To view the press release of Elmeasure India Pvt Ltd and ClodPi regarding the use case of LoRaWAN® prepaid and postpaid electric meters : Click Here

Why do residents/builders install ACCL (Automatic Changeover with Current limiter)?

Instability of power, fluctuation, and failure in the supply of electricity is a major challenge in several developing countries. Setbacks arising from incessant power failures are still a major concern even in the era of the industrial revolution 4.0.

The need for alternative power supply had become imperative and generators were used for assistance during power outages to supply load in residential and commercial buildings. However, this comes with the challenges associated with the manual changeover between sources. Thus, builders and residents came up with the solution by installing Automatic Changeover with Current Limiter to eliminate the need for manual or human intervention for switching to an available source of power.

What is ACCL?

The ACCL is a device designed to provide automatic switching of power supply between utility supply and generator. In general, there are two types of changeover switches that are used to transfer the sources namely, manual and electronic changeover. 

Manual changeover switches comprising switch gear box and cutout fuse or the connector fuse are popularly used to transfer load between two sources. This comes with a limitation that the electrician or a maintenance supervisor needs to manually switch the contacts from mains terminal to generator terminal and vice versa during an outage. This could lead to damage to equipment resulting from overloading at a changeover, and the ceramic insulator could crack during the process of transfer leading to electric shock.

Automatic changeover is found to eliminate the delay associated with manual operation and transfers back to the primary source (to utility) spontaneously when the power is restored. Also, ACCL is inbuilt with step loading feature which would help in protecting the generator coils and increase the lifespan of generators reducing the downtime.

The ACCL manufactured by Elmeasure ACCL standouts with its ability to set parameters on site such as a programmable number of tripping cycles, current, overvoltage and under voltage protection and comes with additional features such as :

  • Control your ACCL remotely using Mobile APP
  • Reset your ACCL using your MCCB from your residence without depending on an electrician and extra cost
  • On-Site current programmability based on loads for both mains and generator
  • Load protection from over-voltage and under-voltage
  • Sequential time-delayed switching to avoid sudden overloading of the generator
  • Field configurable overcurrent setting and tripping for mains supply and generator.
  • Inbuilt display and measurement of I, V, F and Kwh on the generator side and mains side for iACCL M600
  • Single phase ACCL is built with separate control for power and lighting load to reduce wiring cost
No alt text provided for this image

How does it help the residents?

  • The automatic change over switch minimizes damages to lives/equipment since it has its own monitoring system and its switching requires no human contact with the switch.
  • An ACCL could also reduce the maintenance cost of a generator as it provides the feasibility to program delay of transfer between utility and generator to avoid overloading.
  • It provides seamless transfer to maintain a high quality of service to complement the main power supply and provide the uninterrupted power supply.
  • Monitor regularly generator and utility consumption to avoid tenant issues
  • In case the tenant delays the payment towards DG consumption bill, the relay can be programmed on site to cut the service to the particular flat and restore on payment


Where can we use ACCL ?

  • Apartments and Villas
  • Commercial centers
  • Airports & Railways
  • Banking & Finance
  • Infrastructure & Telecommunications.

If you require any other information regarding ACCL, feel free to comment below.!

Spanish test

Smart Cities is an easy spread word but the odds that involve in making it happenapart from involving huge money & technology appreciation are decisions & co-ordination involved among the various departments of the government.

Smart City Design-Stakeholders:  City council and City Administration, National and Regional Governments, Citizens and Citizen Organizations, Non-Governmental Organization (NGO), Industry Associations, Standardization Bodies, Urban Planners, City Service Companies, ICT Companies, International, Regional and Multilateral Organizations, Academia, Research Organizations and Specialized Bodies and Utility Providers.

Key Performance Indicators (KPIs):

  1. Environment : Air quality, Water, Noise, Biodiversity and Energy.
  2. Society & Culture : Education, Health, Safety, Housing and Culture.
  3. Economy : Innovation, Employment, Trade, Productivity, Physical infrastructure and ICT infrastructure.
A few concerns:
  1. Cost of living: Rate of taxes on citizens and hence cost of living will shoot up to cover the massive investment that would require towards Smart city infrastructure build-up and operations needs.
  2. Awareness of citizens:  Moderate percentage of digitally illiterate people live in cities and are susceptible to a lot of self and system damage.
  3. Privacy concerns for its citizens:  Acquisition of a lot of data that can reveal a lot of things about the individuals.
  4. Security and Safety concerns: A big threat to safety & security of individuals if privacy aspects are compromised.

If Smart cities are made with overreliance on electronics/’the network’. If a whole city is dependent on some AI (Artificial intelligence) that is running the show, again, this is perhaps something of concern.

Governing authorities should ensure the data privacy/security aspects to be well in control and to push good drive to eradicate the digital illiteracy.

Smart cities episode 7 - concerns

A few benefits of sustainable smart cities:

  1. A road tolling system increases the efficiency in utilizing public infrastructure. Whereby each car has an electronic device that can be scanned by the road tolls and when you drive on certain sections of road, you are charged for it. In Singapore like cities, the tolling is dynamic meaning the traffic authority knows traffic patterns and can adjust the price for road space based on usage.
  2. Stores were to implement smart restocking, whereby they need to keep less inventory in the store, because they know more precisely when stocks will run out. This allows them to have smaller store footprints, greater product selection, less products going to waste, etc., all of which should lead to lower cost.
  3. A network of CCTV cameraswith facial recognition technology that can recognize likely criminals before they strike, or take down criminals with better precision after crimes have been committed. Which should lead to Lower crime.
  4. Other areas:
  5. Connecting Cities and Communities
    1. Smart Living
    2. Smart Mobility
    3. Smart Environment
  6. Enhancing Innovation and Participation
    1. Smart Governance
    2. Smart People
    3. Smart Economy

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The pressing demands to meet the normal life requirements in the cities that are exploding in length and breadth with unimaginable population continue to relocate from Villages and towns has made the SMART CITY A NECESSITY.

To build smart and sustainable cities, research on “standards and technology” from academia and industries are in good swing.

Especially R&Ds are focusing on ‘technology & infrastructure’ to address Smart demands like… -Smart Grid – Cloud Computing – Internet of Things (IoT) – Intelligent Transportation – eHealth”.

Smart cities still need significant maturity for effective design and operation.


Your Role… to be contd

Smart Cities draw the criteria for living, development & growth which every country strives to achieve.
Hope you liked our inititation & play your part in achieving #SmartLiving.

Smart cities episode 6 more applications

#6 [Smart Cities Web Series] – MORE APPLICATIONS


Monitoring and controlling of the electrical sub systems and controlling of pumps of Huge Water Sumps at ‘Main Pump house (MPH)’.  The command control and monitoring happens from ‘Main Control Room (MCR)’ which is 8km away from the Main Pump House.

Smart cities episode 5 Water Management System

System Description:

Smart cities episode 5 - System Description

Electrical sub system: All of the electrical parameters like VLL(RYB), VLN(RYB), Freq.Hz, Amps(RYB), Power factor, Watts(RYB) and VA(RYB), etc. of the loads are measured & acquired through the ‘Multi-Function Meter’ at HT site and at LT motor section, and few more meters to measure output voltages of the 110 V DC system which comprises of the ‘battery bank, charger1 and charger2’, etc.

The ‘Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition’ (SCADA) system comprises of ‘Human Machine interface (HMI)’ software and hardware (viz… ‘Controller’, Gateways, MFMs, Smart IOs, etc.). SCADA systems are used by industrial organizations and companies in the public and private sectors to control and maintain efficiency, distribute data for smarter decisions, and communicate system issues to help mitigate downtime. SCADA systems work well in many different types of enterprises because they can range from simple configurations to large, complex installations. SCADA systems are the backbone of many modern industries, including: Energy, Oil and Gas, Transportation, Manufacturing, Food and Beverage, Water and Waste Recycling, etc.

All the monitoring locations will communicate with SCADA at Main Pump House site and Main Control Room. The sampling time of SCADA system is 1ms.

HMI Software helps to do system customizations more efficiently as to monitor and control valves, pumps, motors, sensors and more. SCADA system generates alerts, alarms and triggers load disconnects and reconnects according to the customized logics based on the customer specification requirements.

Controller and all of these MFMs, DC-meters communicates to Gateway over Modbus RTU protocol from different locations using wired RS485 interface and through the  GPRS gateway to the SCADA system.

Controller analog inputs are the process parameters like flow, pressure, sump level, etc. Controller digital inputs are the status parameters of the pump like run, trip and dry run, etc.  Controller processing unit reads analog and digital input data from connected field equipment through its input modules. Controller outputs are updated to the output devices (Gateway, Digital Output devices, Analog Output devices that drives or controls Relays/Actuators/Motors) based on the Control program uploaded into the Controller memory and stimuli from analog and digital inputs.

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BMS otherwise known as a building automation system (BAS), is a computer-based control system installed in buildings as to monitor and control the building’s mechanical and electrical equipment such as ventilation, lighting, power systems, fire systems, water, gas and security systems.

 A list of systems that can be monitored or controlled by a BMS are shown below:

  1. Lighting control
  2. Electric power control
  3. Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning
  4. Security and observation
  5. Access control
  6. Fire alarm system
  7. Lifts, elevators,
  8. Water and Cooking Gas control
  9. Closed-circuit television (CCTV)
  10. Other engineering systems
  11. Control Panel
  12. PA system
  13. Alarm Monitor


  1. Possibility of individual room monitoring  & control
  2. Increased staff productivity
  3. Effective reduction in wastage of Electrical energy, Water and Gas.
  4. Reduced consumption of Electrical energy, water and gas.
  5. Improved reliability and life of devices/systems under control.
  6. Remote monitoring of the plants (such as AHU’s, fire pumps, plumbing pumps, electrical supply, STP, WTP, grey watertreatment plant,)
  7. Systematic and Ease of maintenance
Smart cities episode 5 - Smart cities episode 5 - Smart Cities BMS

The above picture is a typical BMS example: A gated community where 80 apartments per building and such 26 buildings like… building ‘A’ to building ‘Z’ are connected with various sensors viz…

  1. Temp sensors (Room A/C, Geezers : Thermistors based devices),
  2. level sensors (water level indicators: Simple Digital input devices),
  3. Pulse sensors (water, gas consumption indicators: Digital input devices),
  4. Relay modules (to drive the pumps ON/OFF : digital output devices with relays)
  5. Single phase & three phase Energy meters (prepaid/postpaid devices)

Each of these devices mentioned above are designed & centered around a micro controller with RS485 com port and sufficient enough of memory and other Analog and digital IO ports.

Refer the picture above and assume 20 of such devices for the purposes mentioned above are interfaced to a Gateway (GW) whose south side interface is RS485 and north side interface is Ethernet. From each Block a total of 80 RS485 devices are connected to Ethernet Switch (8 port Ethernet switch: 4 of 8 ports are spared for IO expansion) through the 4 GWs.

BMS room primarily comprises of the interface panel2 and the central server and central display systems. The BMS room is located in one of the 26 buildings and the buildings are about 500 meters apart from each other. Thus necessitated the conversion of electrical signal to optical signal using Ethernet to optical converter then passing it through the line interface unit (LIU) and transport the same through Fiber Optic Cable (FOC) to the panel2. And as the signal reaches BMS room through LIU and optical to Ethernet converter, the optical signal is converted back to electrical and passed on to switch and such multiple inputs are multiplexed by switch and the multiplexed output fed to the central server.

Now the rest the work goes on Elnet Software. Based on (1) configuration of the devices at various locations of 26 buildings and (2) as per the BMS enterprising requirements (billing, alarms, alerts, report generation) the Elnet SW decodes the raw data, validates and does the necessary computations then finally transforms the information into an intelligible format and generates reports and saves the desired info periodically in to the server.  Based on the utility requirements displays the diagnostic info of the BMS Network along with vital commercial parameters and alarms / threats if any.  And in response to the BMS network system alarms if any, alerts are posted immediately to the Network Maintenance staff and chief controller of BMS Room by text/email.

… to be contd

Learn the negative impacts of Smart Cities that are explained in the next episode…

#5 [Smart Cities Web Series] – APPLICATIONS


Street light management system comprises of controller, Lux sensors, Gateways, Smart-IOs, etc. & the El-Net Software for Monitoring, controlling the LMS from the ‘Main Control Room (MCR)’. And the communication between the controller subsystem and the MCR happens through Wi-Fi.

Smart cities episode 5 - Light Management System

Functional Description:

Group(s) of street lamps are made ON/OFF based on one of the options (1) LUX sensor data input, in this option the lights are switched ON as the sunsets and they are  switched OFF on the sunrise. (2) Remote switching from the MCR: This option helps putting OFF/ON certain (play grounds, shopping complexes, etc.) light circuits according to the need. (3) Manual (Default) switching: this option could be used whenever they need to override the options 1 and 2. for various reasons. Also, Options 1 and 2 comes with a preprogrammed timed light intensities. And the light intensity could be set from 0% to 100% across the timed slots of the day and the schedule could be changed/reprogrammed as per the utilities need.

For example:

  1. 0%    light intensity from 06:00 Hrs. to 18:00 Hrs.
  2. 50%   light intensity from 18:00 Hrs. to 20:00 Hrs.
  3. 100% light intensity from 20:00 Hrs. to 22:00 Hrs.
  4. 50%    light intensity from 22:00 Hrs. to 6:00 Hrs.

‘El-Net Software’: The Software installed in the server will help integrating Lights to LMS circuits and configuring, Monitoring and Controlling the LMS circuits and customized report generation. The entire Lighting area is divided in to Zones, Zone wise user interface screen(s) helps View the energy consumption data and history of –communication failure, ON/OFF Status of lights with the time stamp on Daily/ Monthly basis and gives the flexibility to change the On/Off schedules.

Any status change in the lighting circuits will be published within 5 sec. on the central Display system provided at MCR and in case of alarms the respective operators would get text alerts and emails as configured.

Field Devices:

  1. Controller and IO Cards and with RS 485
  2. Field IO – DO Modules
  3. Field IO – AI Modules
  4. Sensors with 4-20mA Output

Network Interfaces:

  1. RS 232 Gateway with communication Ports RS 232 / RS 485 / USB
  2. Ethernet gateway with (south) RS 485 port and (north)  Ethernet Port
  3. Wi-Fi network to communicate the data to LMS System

Infrastructure at MCR:

  1. Standard Server for the El-Net SW to handle User Interface and Back endData management application.
  2. Central Display System to present (customized) screens like…
Date Time Zone Floor Location Auto/Manual Sensor Ref# Lux-Actual Lux-Set Value Light ON/OFF Status

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The main objective ofAdvanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI):

  1. To establish two-way communications between smart energy meter(end point) and Head End System (HES)
  2. To enable remote reading, monitoring & control of and electrical network through the energy meters.
  3. To serve as repository of record for all raw, validated andedited data.

AMI Architecture:

Smart cities episode 5 - Smart Metering

“Smart Metering System” functionalities:

    1. Remote Meter data reading at configurable intervals (push/pull)
    2. Time of day (TOD)/TOU metering
    3. Pre-paid/Post-paid functionality
    4. Net Metering/Billing
    5. Alarm/Event detection, notification and reporting
    6. Remote Load Limiter and connection/ disconnection at pre-defined conditions and or on demand conditions.
    7. Remote firmware upgrade
    8. Security features to prevent unauthorized access to the AMI including Smart meter & meter data, etc.
    9. Field replaceable Modular Communication Module (shall be bundled in meter housing)
    10. Pairing with Communication Module
    11. Geolocation Identification
    12. Time Synchronisation

Components of “Smart Metering System” functionalities:

    1. Network Management System (NMS):The NMS is responsible for the establishment and management of all radio mesh networks,
      1. The discovery of all nodes once deployed in the field,
      2. The overall system management,
      3. As well as security management of those millions of devices.
    2. Meter Data Acquisition System (MDAS)/Head End System (HES):The main objective of HES/MDAS is to acquire data from different end points and monitor them automatically from remote.
    3. Meter Data Management System (MDM):A software application that stores, validates, edits and analyses meter reading data prior to releasing it for integration into other operational systems of utility such as customer billing, load forecasting and outage management
    4. Smart Meters:
      1. Smart meters are advanced Electronic energy measurement devices with built-in communication module capable of two-way communications.
      2. Also, has the ability to measure the incoming and outgoing (Import and Export energy) flow of electricity (two-way energy measurement) from a specific location such as a customer‘s home or business.
      3. And has the capacity to collect information about energy usage at various intervalsand transmitting the data through a communication network to utility and receiving instructions from utility as well.
      4. In addition to conventional electronic metering functionality smart meters can undertake load switch activities for disconnecting/ connecting the load.

A few features of Smart Meter:

  1. The instantaneous parameters: The instantaneous parameters shall be continuously updated by the meter to the host computer. The energy values in the table shall be cumulative from the day of manufacturing or from the installation of the meter as the case may be. These shall be continuously updated and the last updated value shall be available for downloading as and when required.
  2. Time of Day or Time of use: First of all a passive calendar is set and that speaks about  the beginning of the time slot and its end time  similarly such time slots  to a max. of 16 slots on any given day are set. Then the passive activity calendar is set and that speaks about date and time stamp at which the passive calendar becomes active. The above process is meant for capturing consumption of energy parameters at different time slots of any given day and this would facilitate computing of energy consumption at different tariffs (slabs for peak hour loads) at different time slots across the day of activity calendar.
  3. Tamper detection features: Meter detects Tampers and Frauds such as Voltage missing, Voltage unbalance, Current unbalance, Current Reversal, Neutral Disturbance, Low PF, Magnet detection, Power on/off, etc. along with date and time of occurrence.
    1. Voltage Missing: Meter detects and records occurrences of Voltage missing and restoration of voltage. If a voltage missing is detected, it is known as voltage missing tamper.
    2. Voltage / Current Unbalance:  Meter detects and records occurrences of Voltage and Current unbalance. A phase voltage difference of 30% and a phase current difference of 30% are known as Voltage unbalance tamper and current unbalance tamper respectively.
    3. Current Polarity Reversal: Meter detects and records occurrences of CT polarity reversal. If a Current polarity reversal is detected, it is known as Current polarity reversal tamper.
    4. Neutral Disturbance: Meter detects and records occurrences of Neutral disturbance, if the voltage is more than 300 V, it is known as Neutral Disturbance tamper.
    5. Low power factor: Meter detects and records occurrences of low power factor, if the power factor is less than 0.2, it is known as Low power factor tamper.
    6. High Current: Meter detects and records occurrences of High current. If the Current is more than 65A, it is known as High Current tamper.
    7. Power on/off: Meter detects and records occurrences of Power off, if the voltage is less than a particular threshold of voltage, it is known as Power off tamper.
    8. Magnetic influence:  Meter detects and records occurrences of the presence of abnormal Magnetic influence near the meter that influences the functionality of the meter.
    9. Front cover opening Disturbance: Meter detects and records occurrences of Front cover opening, if any one tries to tamper the meter by opening the front cover of the meter it detects and logs the event in to its memory with time stamp.
    10. High/ Low Voltage: The meter detects voltage crossing above and below the set threshold voltage, for a persistence time then it logs the event with time stamp.

      The front cover open tamper information will be logged in a stay put type compartment and all other tamper information are logged on divided roll over compartment and first in and first out basis. Meters have provision to record the energy in forward direction in case of CT reversal.

  4. Demand side Management: Smart Meters provide load control outputs for Demand side programs and load shedding on Demand. Demand Control Register is programmed for Maximum demand that is allowed for consumption during the Demand Integration period (Normally 30 minutes / 15 Minutes). For Example:  if Demand Control register is programmed for 6 KW then load gets disconnected for either (1) the instant power exceeds 6 KW for more than 2 minutes (Demand Persistence time) continuously, or (2) If the raising demand reaches 6KW.

    Reconnection happens (demand reconnect time) when the raising demand is less than Demand Control Register value (in this example 6KW.)

    Assuming the Demand Integration Period (DIP) is 30 minutes and the raising demand reaches 6 KW in 20 minutes then the load gets disconnected  and remains in disconnected mode for the next 30 seconds (Demand Reconnect Time: DRT). After the DRT the load gets connected automatically.

  5. Security: When the meter is Security locked, only meter readings and Load survey data are accessible. No access of data that leads to change the functionality/configuration of the meter are allowed. The security system virtually eliminates the fraud / tampering attempts of the meter.
  6. Parameters for accounting and billing: The set of parameters identified for accounting and billing shall be generated by meter for each billing cycle and stored in the meter.  The set of data for last 6 billing cycles are stored in the meter memory. At the end of each cycle corresponding set of data shall be readable by host from remote.

Smart parameter list (measured & calculated) based on IS16444, IS13779, IS15959, & IS15884:

  1. Voltage parameter per phase:
  2. Current parameter per phase:
  3. Power Factor per phase:
  4. Frequency:
  5. Signed Active Power(+forward ; -reverse):
  6. Signed Reactive Power(+Lag;-Lead):
  7. Apparent power:
  8. Active Energy :
  9. Reactive Energy:
  10. Apparent Energy:
  11. Block active energy kWh(forward/import):
  12. Block apparent energy kVAh(forward/import):
  13. Block apparent energy, kVAh lag:
  14. Block apparent energy, kVAh lead:
  15. Block active energy, kWh export(reverse energy):
  16. Block apparent energy, kVAh export(reverse energy):
  17. Import active energy (Forward energy kWh):
  18. Import apparent energy(forward kVAh):
  19. Export energy (reverse energy: active kWh):
  20. Export energy (reverse energy: apparent kVAh):
  21. Maximum demand in kW(active maximum power):
  22. Maximum demand in kVA(apparent MD):
  23. TOD Maximum demand in kW (configurable time zones, maximum will be eight time zones):
  24. TOD Maximum demand in kVA (configurable time zones, maximum will be eight time zones):
  25. Cumulative billing count:
  26. Cumulative tamper count:
  27. Cumulative programming count:
  28. Average Power factor:
  29. Average Voltage:
  30. Average Current:
  31. Number of power failure events:
  32. Billing power on duration in min:
  33. Cumulative power off duration in min:
  34. Cumulative apparent energy, kVArh lag:
  35. Cumulative apparent energy, kVArh lead:

… to be contd

Learn more about applications by Smart Cities that are continued in the next episode…

#4 [Smart Cities Web Series] – FEW SMART CITIES

While the world is still on a wedge to decide whether to be a smart city too soon or not, A few pacers are already named & operating as the top Smart Cities of the world in terms of infrastructure, technology, automation, etc.


The Amsterdam Smart City initiative which began in 2009 currently includes 170+ projects collaboratively developed by local residents, government and businesses. These projects run on an interconnected platform through wireless devices to enhance the city’s real time decision making abilities.

The City of Amsterdam claims the purpose of the projects is to reduce traffic, save energy and improve public safety. A resident developed app is Moby Park, which allows owners of parking spaces to rent them out to people for a fee. The data generated from this app can then be used by the City to determine parking demand and traffic flows in Amsterdam. A number of homes have also been provided with smart energy meters, with incentives provided to those that actively reduce energy consumption.

Other initiatives include flexible street lighting (smart lighting) which allows municipalities to control the brightness of street lights, and smart traffic management where traffic is monitored in real time by the City and information about current travel time on certain roads is broadcast to allow motorists to determine the best routes to take.


Barcelona has established a number of ‘smart city’ projects applications. For example, sensor technology has been implemented in the irrigation system, where real time data is transmitted to gardening crews about the level of water required for the plants. Barcelona has also designed a new bus network based on data analysis of the most common traffic flows in Barcelona, utilising primarily vertical, horizontal and diagonal routes with a number of interchanges. Integration of multiple smart city technologies can be seen through the implementation of smart traffic lights as buses run on routes designed to optimise the number of green lights. In addition, in an emergency, the approximate route of the emergency vehicle is entered into the traffic light system, setting all the lights to green as the vehicle approaches through a mix of GPS and traffic management software, allowing emergency services to reach the incident without delay.

Columbus, Ohio

In the summer of 2017, the City of Columbus, Ohio began its pursuit of a smart city initiative. It partnered with American Electric Power Ohio to create a group of new electric vehicle charging stations. Many smart cities such as Columbus are using agreements such as this one to prepare for climate change, expand electric infrastructure, convert existing public vehicle fleets to electric cars, and create incentives for people to share rides when commuting. Because autonomous vehicles are currently seeing “an increased industrial research and legislative push globally”, building routes and connections for them is another important part of the Columbus Smart City initiative.


In 2013, the Smart Dubai project was initiated by Shaikh Mohammad bin Rashid Al Maktoum, vice president of UAE, which contained more than 100 initiatives to make Dubai a smart city by 2030. The project aimed to integrate private and public sectors, enabling citizens to access these sectors through their smartphones. Some initiatives include the Dubai Autonomous Transportation Strategy to create driverless transits, fully digitizing government, business and customer information and transactions, and providing citizens 5000 hotspots to access government applications by 2021. Two mobile applications, mPay and DubaiNow, facilitate various payment services for citizens ranging from utilities or traffic fines to educational, health, transport, and business services. In addition, the Smart Nol Card is a unified rechargeable card enabling citizens to pay for all transportation services such as metro, buses, water bus, and taxis.


Dublin finds itself as an unexpected capital for smart cities. The smart city programme for the city is run by Smart Dublin an initiative of the four Dublin Local Authorities to engage with smart technology providers, researchers and citizens to solve city challenges and improve city life. It includes Dublinked- Dublin’s open data platform that hosts open source data to smart city applications.

Smart Cities Web Series episode 4 - few smart cities

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Madrid, Spain’s pioneering smart city, has adopted the MiNT Madrid Inteligente/Smarter Madrid platform to integrate the management of local services. These include the sustainable and computerized management of infrastructure, garbage collection and recycling, and public spaces and green areas, among others. The programme is run in partnership with IBMs INSA, making use of the latter’s Big Data and analytics capabilities and experience. Madrid is considered to have taken a bottom-up approach to smart cities, whereby social issues are first identified and individual technologies or networks are then identified to address these issues. This approach includes support and recognition for startups through the Madrid Digital Start Up programme.


In December 2015, Manchester’s City Verve project was chosen as the winner of a government-led technology competition and awarded £10m to develop an Internet of Things (IoT) smart cities demonstrator.

City Verve is based on an open data principle that incorporates a “platform of platforms” which ties together applications for its four key themes: transport and travel; health and social care; energy and the environment; culture and the public realm. This will also ensure that the project is scalable and able to be redeployed to other locations worldwide.


Milan, Italy was prompted to begin its Smart City strategies and initiatives by the European Union’s Smart Cities and Communities initiative. However, unlike many European cities, Milan’s Smart City strategies focus more on social sustainability rather than environmental sustainability. This focus is almost exclusive to Milan and has a major influence in the way content and way its strategies are implemented as shown in the case study of the Bicocca District in Milan.

Milton Keynes

Milton Keynes has a commitment to making itself a Smart City. Currently the mechanism through which this is approached is the MK: Smart initiative, a collaboration of local government, businesses, and academia and 3rd sector organisations. The focus of the initiative is on making energy use, water use and transport more sustainable whilst promoting economic growth in the city. Central to the project is the creation of a state-of-the-art ‘MK Data Hub’ which will support the acquisition and management of vast amounts of data relevant to city systems from a variety of data sources. These will include data about energy and water consumption, transport data, data acquired through satellite technology, social and economic datasets, and crowd sourced data from social media or specialized apps.


International evaluation of Seoul: This is world’s number one city in municipal e-governance for seven consecutive times from 2003 to 2016 (Rutgers University, USA), Ranked 3rd in the world in the number of international conferences hosted (UIA 2015), Ranked 6th in the world in Global city competitiveness (Mori Memorial Foundation – Japan 2016), Ranked 8th among the world’s smartest cities (Forbes, USA 2016).

Smart cities web series episode 4 infographic-2
Focus of Indian Smart cities:

Quality of Life: To improve Livability, sustainability and economic development.

Transportation: New Public Bus stands at the periphery of cities to avoid entry of buses into the city. And up gradation of the existing bus stands. Widening of roads and anti-encroachment drives. Additional Parking stands for the public/Private 4 wheelers, 3 wheelers and 2 wheelers. And City surveillance center(s) to monitor the real time traffic using huge no. of Cameras.

Water availability in the city and reduction of Water wastage: 24×7 water supply to most of the wards in the city by providing possible no. of hand pumps, tube wells, OHTs along with necessary distribution network.

Solid Waste Management Programs: Increase in collection efficiency to about 90%, assisted by no. of GPS enabled vehicles. Vehicles are fitted with loudspeakers to create awareness on waste segregation. Door to door collection in all most of the wards. Land parcels identification for decentralized waste treatment facilities.

Safety and Security conditions in the City: To help overall crime rate reduction to a lowest %, N0. Of CCTVs to be installed at important junctions with control room at SP office. City should have No. of police stations including a few dedicated for women and a few dedicated to weaker section. Huge no. of LED Street lights to be installed for the coverage is improved by good %. And GPS enabled PCR van. Community & Cultural policing which includes formation of PINK BRIGDE, HAWK SQUAD for safety of girls and senior citizens. DIU (District Intelligence Unit) to set up for surveillance and vigilance. Traffic rules and safety awareness camps to be conducted. Women and Child Helpline No.: ex:  1800 345 6247 &: 1098.

Energy availability and reduction of outages in the city:  project funded through IPDS underway for underground cabling, and other infrastructural enhancements. 90% of households have electricity connections. Great focus to increase Power supply towards 65% and reduce T&D losses to very low % from 42% to 33%. Power supply to see a major improvement with average daily supply of 20-22 hours.  Government buildings with solar roof tops. Billing and Collection Efficiency 90%; Online Payment, Grievance Redressal System and response to be outsourced, every substation to be connected to at least 2 grid service station to prevent any breakdown.

Housing Situation in the City:  Initiatives to bridge housing gap, Online building plan approval system under e-municipality/Corporation time to be reduced to a couple of days. Online holding tax collections to be improved through rigorous efforts viz, digitization of records, introduction of online payment and special drives. Automated GIS base map reconciliation with municipal database.

Local government: committed to citizen centric governance and excellence in service delivery. An administratively efficient, accountable, responsive and transparent government departments through ICT based governance system and service delivery. City will institutionalize continuous engagement with its citizens in the decision making process. Enhance outreach of citizen centric services through ICT with effective grievance redressal system.

Smart cities web series episode 4 Infographic-3

… to be contd

Get the Essence & deep understanding of Smart Cities by understaing a few applications in the next episode.

Episode-3-Smart Cities Web Series-Platforms-Technologies

#3 [Smart Cities Web Series] – PLATFORMS & TECHNOLOGIES

An overview on few of the platforms and technologies that have opened new ways to collective action and collaborative problem-solving.

Cloud-based services

The term is generally used to describe data centers available over the Internet to many users. Cloud computing is the on-demand availability of computer system resources, especially data storage and computing power, without direct active management by the user.

Key Characteristics:

Enables users to access cloud computing services using a web browser regardless of their location from anywhere or what device they use (e.g., PC, mobile phone).

Multitenancy enables a large pool of users sharing the resources thus allows Centralization of infrastructure in locations with lower costs (such as real estate, electricity, etc.).

Productivity may be increased when multiple users can work on the same data simultaneously, rather than waiting for it to be saved and emailed. Time may be saved as information does not need to be re-entered when fields are matched, nor do users need to install application software upgrades to their computer.

Reliability improves with the use of multiple redundant cloud computing sites, which makes the cloud computing well-designed, suitable for business continuity and disaster recovery.

Smart Cities Web Series-Platforms& Technologies

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The Internet of things (IoT)

is the extension of Internet connectivity into physical devices that are embedded with electronics, Internet connectivity, and other forms of sensors, these devices can communicate and interact with others over the Internet, and they can be remotely monitored and controlled.

The definition of the Internet of things has evolved due to the convergence of multiple technologies, real-time analytics, machine learning, commodity sensors, and embedded systems. Traditional fields of embedded systems, wireless sensor networks, control systems, automation (including home and building automation), and others all contribute to enabling the Internet of things.

Applications of IoT devices:

Smart Home

A smart home or automated home could be based on a platform or hubs that control smart devices and appliances like, using Apple’s Home Kit, manufacturers can have their home products and accessories controlled by an application in iOS devices such as the iPhone and the Apple Watch.

There are also dedicated smart home hubs that are offered as standalone platforms to connect different smart home products like, the Amazon Echo, Google Home, Apple’s Home Pod, and Samsung’s Smart Things.

Medical and Healthcare

IoT devices can be used to enable remote health monitoring and emergency notification systems. These health monitoring devices can range from blood pressure and heart rate monitors to advanced devices capable of monitoring specialized implants, such as pacemakers, Fitbit electronic wristbands, or advanced hearing aids.

Some hospitals have begun implementing “smart beds” that can detect when they are occupied and when a patient is attempting to get up. It can also adjust itself to ensure appropriate pressure and support is applied to the patient without the manual interaction of nurses.


The IoT can assist in the integration of communications, control, and information processing across various transportation systems covering most of the aspects of transportation systems (i.e. the vehicle, the infrastructure, driver, and user).

In Logistics and Fleet Management for example, an IoT platform can continuously monitor the location and conditions of cargo and assets via wireless sensors and send specific alerts when management exceptions occur (delays, damages, thefts, etc.).

Sensors such as GPS, Humidity, and Temperature sends data to the IoT platform and then the data is analyzed and then sent to the users. This way, users can track the real-time status of vehicles and can make appropriate decisions.

Building and Home Automation

IoT devices can be used to monitor and control the mechanical, electrical and electronic systems used in various types of buildings (e.g., public and private, industrial, institutions, or residential).

Industrial applications (IIoT)

The IIoT refers to interconnected sensors, instruments, and other devices networked together with computers’ industrial applications, including, but not limited to, manufacturing and energy management system . This connectivity allows for data collection, exchange, and analysis, potentially facilitating improvements in productivity and efficiency as well as other economic benefits.


The IoT can realize the seamless integration of various manufacturing devices equipped with sensing, identification, processing, communication, actuation, and networking capabilities. The IoT intelligent systems enable rapid manufacturing of new products, dynamic response to product demands, and real-time optimization of manufacturing production and supply chain networks, by networking machinery, sensors and control systems together.


A few IoT applications in farming are collecting data on temperature, rainfall, humidity, wind speed, pest infestation, and soil content. This data can be used to automate farming techniques, make informed decisions to improve quality and quantity, minimize risk and waste, and reduce the effort required to manage crops. For example, farmers can now monitor soil temperature and moisture from afar and even apply IoT-acquired data to precision fertilization programs.

Infrastructure applications

Monitoring and controlling operations of sustainable urban and rural infrastructures like bridges, railway tracks and on- and offshore wind-farms is a key application of the IoT. The IoT can benefit the construction industry by cost saving, time reduction, better quality workday, paperless workflow and increase in productivity.

… to be contd

Get the Essence & deep understanding of Smart Cities with few top smart city examples in the next episode.

#2 [Smart Cities Web Series] – FRAMEWORKS

The main essence of the Smart City concept can be understood well by these four frameworks:

Smart Cities are classified based on the following frameworks:

  1. Technology Framework
  2. Human Framework
  3. Energy framework &
  4. Data Management framework.
Technology Framework:

The concepts of the Smart city rely heavily on the different combinations of the use of technological infrastructure. For example:

  • Digital city:

The Technology Framework ‘TFW’ combines service-oriented infrastructure and communication infrastructure to meet the needs of governments and their employees, citizens, and businesses.

  • Information city:

An information city could be an urban Centre both economically and socially speaking; The TFW collects local information and delivers them to the public portal; many inhabitants are able to live and even work on the Internet because they could obtain every information through IT infrastructures.

  • Intelligent city:

The notion emerges in a social context in which knowledge, learning process, and creativity have great importance and the human capital is considered the most precious resource within this type of technological city.

Human framework

Human infrastructure (i.e., creative occupations and workforce, knowledge networks, voluntary organizations) is a crucial axis for city development

  • Creative city:

Creativity is recognized as a key driver to a smart city.  Social infrastructures, like for instance intellectual and social capital are indispensable factors to build a city that is smart according to the human framework. These infrastructures concern people and their relationship.

  • Learning city:

Learning city is involved in building a skilled workforce. This type of city in the human context improves the competitiveness in the global knowledge economy: individually proactive city, city cluster, the one-to-one link between cities, and city network. That lead a city to learn how it should be possible and realistic to be smart through learning process followed by city workforce.

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Energy Framework

Smart cities use data and technology to create efficiencies, improve sustainability, create economic development, and enhance the quality of life factors for people living and working in the city. It also means that the city has a smarter energy infrastructure.

A smart city is powered by “smart connections” for various items such as street lighting, smart buildings, distributed energy resources (DER), data analytics, and smart transportation. Amongst these things, energy is paramount; this is why utility companies play a key role in smart cities. Electric companies, working partnership with city officials, technology companies and a number of other institutions, are among the major players that helped accelerate the growth of America’s smart cities.

Data Management Framework

Smart city employs a combination of data collection, processing, and disseminating technologies in conjunction with networking and computing technologies and data security and privacy measures encouraging application innovation to promote the overall quality of life for its citizens and covering dimensions that include: utilities, health, transportation, entertainment and government services.

… to be contd

Get the Essence & deep understanding of Smart Cities with these frameworks in the next episode.

Smart Cities Web Series-Introduction

#1 [Smart Cities Web Series] – INTRODUCTION

If you consider the theory of cause & effect, we need to have a few thoughts about urbanization before getting onto “smart city”.

Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural areas to urban areas. It is predominantly the process by which towns and cities are formed and become larger as more people begin living and working in central areas.

And Urbanization is relevant to a range of disciplines, including urban planning, geography, Sociology, architecture, economics, and public health. The phenomenon is closely linked to modernization, industrialization and the sociological process of rationalization.

smart city is an urban area that uses different types of electronic internet (internet of things: ‘IoT’) connectivity to collect the data from physical devices and everyday objects, and sensors, etc.  The data collected is processed and analyzed to monitor and manage traffic and transportation systems, power plants, water supply networks, waste management, crime detection, information systems, schools, libraries, hospitals, and other community services.

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The IoT network integrates ‘information and communication technology’ (ICT) and that allows city officials to interact directly with community and city infrastructure which helps to monitor what is happening in the city and how the city is evolving. ICT is used to enhance quality, performance, and interactivity of urban services and that reduces costs, resource-consumption and to increase contact between citizens and government. Smart city applications are developed to manage urban flows and allow for real-time responses. A smart city may, therefore, be more prepared to respond to challenges than one with a simple “transactional” relationship with its citizens.

Major technological, economic and environmental changes have generated interest in smart cities, including climate change, economic restructuring, the move to online retail and entertainment, aging populations, urban population growth and pressures on public finances.

Statistics by Arup Group:

Arup (officially Arup Group Limited) is a multinational professional services firm headquartered in London estimates that the global market for smart urban services will be $400 billion per annum by 2020. Examples of Smart City technologies and programs have been implemented in Singapore, Dubai, Milton, Keynes, Southampton, Amsterdam, Barcelona, Madrid, Stockholm, China, and New York.

Source: Wikipedia

… to be contd
Get the Essence & deep understanding of Smart Cities with the 4 types of frameworks in the next episode.